Раткина проректор по учебной работе профессор С. Федоров М.
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Москва Редакционная коллегия: Белозерский А. Москва Кривенкова Р. Санкт-Петербург Мартынова Т. Москва Веселов Н. Воронеж Майсюк В. Магнитогорск Чаплыгин Ю.
Краснодар Учредитель: Научный центр «Олимп» ,г. Москва, ул. Героев Панфиловцев 17 к. Редакция журнала «Современные научные исследования и разработки»: ,г. Ответственность за аутентичность и точность цитат, имен, названий и иных сведений, а также за соблюдение законов об интеллектуальной собственности несут авторы публикуемых статей.
Разработка алгоритма функциональной диагностики ленточного конвейера по энергетическим параметрам приводного электродвигателя 20 АНКВАБ М. Становление и эволюция мировоззрения М. Особенности хронотопа рассказа Т. Национальный характер и европеизация российского образования: нужна ли специалисту социокультурная компетентность?
Местные Советы и представительство в них населения: от деклараций о народовластии г. Количественно-анатомическая характеристика вторичной древесины Rhamnus cathartica L. Rhamnaceae Juss. Технологии профессора Юнусова Ф. Исследование вопросов управления неявным знанием в инновационной организации на основе концепции лидерства экономики знаний ГУРОВА Ю.
Пожарные депо в г. Некоторые вопросы тональной семантики в романсах С. Характеристика структуры ценопопуляции Hedysarum minussinense В. Оценка состояний ценопопуляций Achillea millefolium L. Some pattern exercises of presenting lexical and grammatical material are formulated. Different kinds of exercises on speech activities listening, reading, speaking, and writing are considered in the article.
Keywords: lexical units; grammar items; listening; reading; speaking; writing; communicative approach. At present there are a lot of trends of teaching foreign languages at non-linguistic higher schools. Linguists are trying to find the most effective ways of presenting lexical, grammatical material on the base of communicative approach . No doubt that the main speech activities listening, reading, speaking, and writing greatly depend on the language means: lexical units and grammar items.
It is common knowledge that the communication in any foreign language is impossible without a supply of lexical units. It is very important to bear in mind that while introducing new words you have to go through some stages.
The first stage may be called preliminary. The algorithm of introducing new words is to begin with the words differentiation according to the spheres of application and only then some comments on reading rules and, of course, phonetics practice may be given. The tasks can be formulated in such a way: read the words following the rules of reading; look at the following pairs of words and think if the underlined letters are pronounced in the same way, or if they are pronounced differently; read the international words and mind the stress .
The second stage is devoted to different types of lexical unit substitution. Students have to fulfill the following tasks: find the words which have similar or opposite meanings; match the adjectives with the nouns to form meaningful phrases; decide which of the verbs collocate with the nouns and identify the word combinations at the sentence level; complete the sentences with the words in capitals at the end of the sentence to form the word that fits suitably in the blank space; insert the words at the sentence level: fill in the blanks with the missing words the first letter of each word is given ; match the terms with their definitions to understand better the basic notions.
The next stage involves mastering the lexical units at the text level. Before coming to the text level, some comments on introducing the grammar exercises.
The introduction of grammar includes the following tasks: identify the grammar items at the sentence level; use the words in brackets to fill in the blanks; make up sentences according to the models . On introducing lexical and grammatical material we come up to the text level. Skimming the text is followed by the following exercises: read the text, try to focus on its essential facts and choose the most suitable heading given below for each paragraph; agree or disagree with the following statements.
After skimming the text it is a good idea to listen to another text on the same topic. Before listening to the text the teacher should draw the attention of the students to some words and phrases which are difficult to be understood through listening.
After listening the students may perform such tasks as: agree or disagree with the following statements and add some more information; answer the questions or provide information on some points .
Having coped with reading and listening the students come up to speaking. There exist a lot of exercises to enhance the speaking skills, such as: give the definitions to the following terms; make up questions and answer them according to the models; read the following dialogues, sum up the information and act out a similar dialogue; share your vision on different points; act out a role play.
The algorithm can be based on the following phrases: The title of the text is The text deals with The text covers such points as first, second, third It should be underlined that In conclusion I may say that To my mind . The next point is developing writing skills in such activities as: complete the following sentences in a logical way; make up your own story according to the following points of the plan.
As the pedagogical experience shows, the above mentioned sequence of activities during foreign language classes is able to give perfect results in mastering foreign languages. List of sources: 1. Восковская А. Английский язык для вузов: учебное пособие. Карпова Т. Английский язык: учебное пособие. English for Colleges: учебное пособие. Boers F. Keywords: Association, associative dictionary, associative experience method, associative linguistics, stimulating words, associate.
According to an outstanding linguist A. Nurmonov 93 , the use of the category language person in the scientific paradigm of linguistics in the XXI century has brought to the widely use of the notions person, cognition, thought, activity, behavior, situation which were not used in linguistics though were close notions to linguistics; the term speaking person has become a key notion connecting different linguistic disciplines such as psycholinguistics, ethnolinguistics, sociolinguistics, cognitive linguistics, lingua pragmatics, ontolinguistics.
This approach of language has already been formed as an independent scientific paradigm in western and Russian linguistics, but it has recently appeared in Uzbek linguistics which has pushed a jerk to widespread of ideas of associative linguistics.
It is common knowledge that associative linguistics, it methods of analysis does not let study language materials separate from its owner a native speaker. By means of associative analysis certain native speakers cognition of reality, their cognitive knowledge, language word stock, and language memory are studied.
Such approach to a language study has lead to the creation of new type of dictionaries - associative dictionaries which reflect associative relations of words in linguistics last century. What sort of dictionaries are associative dictionaries, and what is the main aim of compiling such dictionaries? It is necessary to define the term association at first. As registered in different sources the term association lat. Locke, an English philosopher, pedagogue and a representative of empiricism and liberalism.
He developed the associonismic idea based on connection according to similarity Yaroshevskiy, , contradiction opposition and closeness suggested by Aristotle, a representative of 10 11 ancient world philosophy. Locke used the term association to express the relations connecting psychic elements. Ermolova states an association was understood as a subscript of thought and ability the highest level of knowledge in that period associanism. The term association was not paid any attention in philology until the period when metonymy and metaphor were studied as secondary nominations in the associative semantic relations between a word and a notion.
It has long been believed that associanism ideas serve to solve the problems related to human phenomenon. Therefore at the end of the XIX th century and the beginning of the XXth century associanism was studied in different scientific disciplines such as political sciences, behavior and upbringing problems.
In psychology associanism ideas were used in studying the relations of psychological process where one should cause to appear the other thing in human mind. The associative approach in the analysis of psychic process caused the appearance and development associative psychology in England in the XIX th century.
Outstanding scholars in psychology such as T. Brown, J. Mill, J. Mill, A. Ben, G. Spenser added their own contribution in developing this trend. Beginning with the end of the XIXth century linguists began to study lexical verbal associations. The representative of the Kazan linguistic school N.
Krushevskiy was one of the first linguists who suggested the idea of the division of words into associative rows according to association law. The interest in studying language in associative way increased in world linguistics in the XX th century. The interest in the analysis of lexical associations in different languages grounded the appearance of associative dictionaries. Associative dictionaries are the dictionaries compiled on the basis of human psychological imagination, they include associatively linked lexical units of a language.
Associative dictionaries give information about language word stock, semantic relations of lexical units, the use of lexical units together in speech based on associative relations, their cultural, social, gender markers.
From this point, associative dictionaries perform the function of important source for lexicological, lingua cognitive, sociolinguistic, genderological and pragmatic investigations. However, such dictionaries are considered to be an important easy-to- understand data base for the wide masses of people giving knowledge about native speakers linguistic thought mind , their cognitive knowledge about the surrounding world, their spirituality, outlook, interests, cultural potential, attitude to the reality, life and professional experience, and even about their problems.
Creation of associative dictionaries has given the way to the theoretically formation of associative linguistics. A number of associative-verbal branch theories in different disciplines of linguistics and associative grammar have been founded based on this type of dictionary. What is the main aim of compiling associative dictionaries?
The aim of compiling this sort of dictionaries is to control a language word-stock, to study native speakers linguistic thought activity, to check their vocabulary word-stock , to analyze the kind of lexical units used in connected speech. So, this sort of dictionaries uses lexical units as dictionary material. The scope volume of such lexical units depends on the main aim of the dictionary and who the dictionary is aimed at.
Associative dictionaries are compiled in two ways. A certain lexical unit which is called stimul in scientific works going together with units a word or words, word combinations, a phrase, a sentence according to their spelling or pronunciation appeared in human mind is registered in the first type of dictionaries.
.ВИДЕО ПО ТЕМЕ: Как распознать готовность к родам? Елена Владимировна Желамбекова зав. операционным блоком. MD GROUP